Laboratory

Vacuum Furnaces with Metal Heaters

Two high-vacuum furnaces with tungsten-mesh heaters, A tungsten-mesh high-vacuum furnace with a hydrogen flow system — Evaporation and condensation of minerals / Isotopic fractionation during evaporation from silicate melts / Formation processes of chondritic components

Vacuum Furnaces with External Heating Elements

A high-vacuum gold-image furnace with a gas flow system (e.g., H2-H2O), Three gold-mirror high-vacuum furnaces with gas flow systems, A vacuum gold-image furnace — Evaporation and vapor growth of minerals / Gas-solid reaction / Crystallization, hydration, and icotopic exchange of amorphous silicates / Formation processes of chondritic components

Low-Temperathre Photolysis Apparatus

A low-temperathre photolysis apparatus with a heater and a high-resolution qudrupole mass spectrometer, Photochemistry in Interstellar Cloud for Astro-Chronicle in Hokkaido University (PICACHU) — Formation and evolution of ice and organic materials

One-atmosphere Furnaces and Ovens

A high-temperature furnace with molybdenum disilicide heating elements (up to 1,600°C), six muffle furnaces (up to 1,100–1,000°C) — Synthesis of minerals and glasses / Experiments with evacuated/sealed glass tubes / Formation processes of chondritic components

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer

Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer with an ATR system — Sample characterization / Quantitative analysis of reaction degrees